The disease tuberculosis is infectious and it causes the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Koh’s bacillus (is named after the scientist who discovered it – Robert Koch).
This microorganism is transmitted from person to person and is contagious only one patient suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis and cough ejected germs. It is important to note that if it comes to tuberculosis kidney, lymph nodes, spine, lung tissue or bone tuberculosis infection is not spread !!!
Pulmonary tuberculosis HOW IS IT SPREAD
Prolonged stay close to the patient, especially if the room is poorly sunny and unventilated, increases the risk of becoming ill. The infection will occur if a person is in contact with the sick has a lower resistance (the elderly, children, the chronically ill, etc.). The infection, however, is not a disease, it just means that people carries in their bodies the germs of tuberculosis, and it’s shown only in 10% of infected people (usually the first five years after infection and usually notice first symptoms of tuberculosis). Who will get sick, and when not, depends on the genetic predisposition to tuberculosis and resistance of the organism, but one should know that the probability is greater if they live in poor conditions or a person prone to bad habits and disorderly life.
Tuberculosis symptoms such as a dry cough, loss of appetite and weight, excessive sweating and mild fever quite resemble the symptoms of another lung disease, and pulmonary TB is not easy to diagnose.
Symptoms of TB of the lungs as we have already said in the introduction are not typical and are very similar to those that occur in the case of other lung diseases. The most common signs of TB are a cough, sometimes accompanied by coughing up blood, loss of appetite, weight loss, increased night sweats, easy fever (37.5 to 38 ° C). If the tuberculous lung is not treated, leads to a general deterioration of the body. It is, therefore, important that the person who is coughing for more than three weeks, see a doctor, who will refer you to chest X-ray, and if the recording detect changes that occur in the case of tuberculosis, carried out the appropriate diagnostic procedures.
For the care of tuberculosis patients treated at home should provide the following conditions:
- A separate and healthy room
- Good nutrition
- Medicines and control of doctors and nurses
Room of patient with tuberculosis
It should be bright enough air, but not much great. Rooms larger than 5 X 5 are not suitable because they do not penetrate the sun to every town. Good natural light is important because of the influence of sunlight on the patient and his mood, and because the sun’s rays kill Koch’s bacillus. Koh’s bacillus can be in a dry state and hidden in the shadows and stay alive for more than eighteen days but dies in the sun for ten minutes. Good lighting is necessary and that the patient can read or do some manual work easier. There should be the possibility for rapid ventilation of the room.
The windows should be always open. Well, covered tuberculosis patient does not harm the winter. If the room cleaner air, the more breathing easier and lung are less driven. And if the lungs less run, they may heal faster, just like any other diseased organ. With regular ventilation of rooms reduces the number of Koch’s bacillus in room air we breathe when we enter the room.
The windows are closed only when the patient’s changing, and in the winter and during a meal. During the visit, the patient windows must be open.
The windows should be without a curtain. If you enter the room flies, the windows should be veiled thin gauze, which is removed at night and because it reduces the free ventilation of rooms. On the curtains are very easy to stop dust in the room, which always includes Koch’s bacilli.
The room should not be overloaded with furniture. It does not need to keep anything that serves the rest of the household. With walls should be removed all carpets, handicrafts, and redundant images.
The best is that the walls are whitewashed. Painting renewed at least twice a year. Malani walls are not suitable because they can not be frequently renewed.
Floors should be made of boards. The floor should not hold any carpets because in them retain Koch’s bacillus, which in pouring and cleaning flights in the air while they breathe. Under should be kept clean by wiping with wet rags, and not by cleaning with a dry broom. The wet patch Kuts dust, and with it the Koch’s bacilli.
Furniture should also wipe with a damp cloth.
The cloths that are used to clear the furniture and the floor should not be used for other rooms but should be kept separate, preferably in a separate bucket, soaked in lime water and soap.
Because the disease takes a long time, this bed should be comfortable, but not too much, supple. Feather mattresses and over-coverage are not good because it causes sweating which exhausts the patient and exposes the cold if detected at night. The best bed with a wool mattress and wired “spring-mattress”. The mattress should be covered with a white sheet. Sleeping on sheets, rags, and blankets is not healthy. Blankets should be fitted on both sides of a canvas sheet to be easily changed. Warmth blanket should be adjusted according to the season and the sensitivity of the patient.
Pillows are placed optionally. It is believed that the high headboard treatment necessary for treatment of tuberculosis. High headboard is necessary only when the patient blooding while breath heavily, has a high fever and heart failure.
Patients should not lie in the cloth or flannel underwear. Lying in a suit is not healthy. In winter you can wear woolen sweater or camisole.
Staying in the hospital room should be reduced to a minimum. During operation in the room (beds, cleaning) should be through the nose and mouth mask tie.
The patient should be provided with a pocket spittoon. It is good to have a backup. Spittoon should be boiled together with sputum in a tightly closed jar, in lime-soapy water. It was only after boiling, we throw a spit in the toilet. If you do not have a pocket spittoon, we can also use a hand, and in the worst case standing spittoon. Such spittle is covered with ash, then wash with soapy water.
We should not ever forget that Koh’s bacillus is very resistant to disinfectants and that the only safe means of scouring the lime-soapy water or soda.
Nutrition of patients with tuberculous
It must be diverse and abundant. In terms of a child, we must distinguish mainly patients with high fever, patients with low temperatures or without fever. It is understood that in determining the diet plays the role of state and other organs: kidneys, stomach, intestines, and heart, but this diet determined by a physician for each individual case.
TB patients with high fever should be referred to the food occasionally to exclude fatty and too spicy (pepper, hot pepper, vinegar, salt in large quantities) and alcoholic beverages, and meals that really swell hose (beans, beans, fresh bread, etc. .). Meals should not be too abundant but should be more frequent, five to six per day. Patients should drink as much water as they need, and in addition, they can also be given a mild tea, weaker coffee, fruit juices and milk. For all that time, patients should be given plenty of raw fruits, to vitamins and sugar, which complement other foods.
As soon as the temperature drops below 38 ° c, efforts should be made to the patient eats more and better. It should be exploited, at least from the beginning, the natural tendency of the patient and give him more of what I’m asking. In this way, will be achieved by taking enough food and get used to his stomach on a larger job. TB patient can eat any fresh and well-prepared food. There are no forbidden foods. What meals are varied, time and appetite will be better, and the amount of food intake is greater. The meat and fat should be abundantly represented in the three main meals. The two minor meals should be lighter.
The best is the next meal schedule:
Breakfast at 7 am :white coffee or tea, bread with butter, honey or jam, fried eggs or boiled eggs, some fruit.
Snack at 10 am: sour or sweet milk, or stewed with some bread.
Lunch at 12:30 pm: some soup or broth of vegetables, bread, meat boiled or roasted, vegetables or potatoes or cooked pasta, green salad, pastries, fruit, black coffee.
The afternoon meal at 4 pm: dietary bread, cheese, butter, dried or cooked or roasted meat, eggs, honey, jam, jam, Russian tea, cocoa or dark chocolate, fruit.
Dinner at 7:30 pm: vegetables, dough, smaller amounts of meat or eggs, stewed fruit (dried plums), fruit, butter, jam, cheese, black coffee or milk.
It is understood that it is not always possible nor necessary to give the patient all that is in individual servings listed. In the end, every good and abundant food are suitable for tuberculosis patients if the tasteful and well saved.
Lack of dietary supplements by taking fish of oil. Fish oil is especially needed people who do not have opportunities for good nutrition. It should take two or three, or more tablespoons of oil a day.
Particular attention should be given on vitamin supplement. Vitamins. has in a normal diet, and there are particularly in vegetables, salads, fruits, milk, eggs and bacon. Tuberculosis patients need the considerably greater amount of vitamins than healthy people. For the treatment of tuberculosis are particularly necessary vitamins A, B, and C.
The best measure of whether the patient is given a good diet will be its progress in severity. Advancement in weight is also important and is almost sure sign that the body begins to overcome the disease.
Tuberculosis patients should not drink alcoholic beverages. During the high temperature should not drink any alcohol, but when the temperature normalizes, may be allowed diluted wine. Well no it is not of any real use.
TB patient shouldn’t smoke. Good and successful treatment of tuberculosis can not be implemented without a doctor. Tuberculosis is a complex, variable and long-term illness, and requires a good knowledge of medicine and the means at our disposal to treat tuberculosis.
Doctors should not be changed. It is best to stick to one physician, preferably a specialist in tuberculosis, which will eventually familiar and disease and the patient, and know how to make it work in any case.
Perform regular medical control, while worsening often least once a week, and during the mute disease at least once a month. X-ray examination is necessary, because sometimes ordinary examination can establish some minor changes in the lungs, but also not alone x-ray is not sufficient to determine whether the process of the lungs is active or not.
The doctor will determine whether and how long the patient must lie in the bed. Determine exactly how much the patient may get up during the day and at what time. That regulation patient must be most accurately observed. Only one patient is enough to expect to heal. It is wrong to the national opinion that TB patients should get up early and walk ‘while outside dew. On the contrary, TB patients should get up later, and the first fresh, morning air advantage in the bed next to an open window.
Rising before the time can easily cause a worsening of the disease. In any case, lying has to last at least as long as the temperature, but it is necessary that even after the fall in temperature to some more time in bed. It is particularly well lying in the open air, but not in the sun, but in the shade. It should not be lying on the ground, but the outside must present bed.
Today there are various drugs with much success treat tuberculosis; as streptomycin, PAS, isoniazid, but there are other, newer. There are the old tried and tested methods of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis pneumothorax and various surgical operations, which should be used whenever possible and necessary.
Due to incorrect use of special medicines against tuberculosis may be the so-called “resistance Koh’s bacillus”. The improper use of drugs Koch’s bacillus get used to them and become resistant. Once this is set up, it is a special hospital treatment. This will not happen if the patient strictly adheres advice of doctors, who only know when, how and how much of these medicines should be taken.
In tuberculosis patients, while are waiting for the emergency and the arrival of a doctor, against temperature can be used aspirin, pyramidion. A patient who is bleeding from the lungs do not need to speak or to move, it has to be a half-sitting, raised on two or three pillows. Can take only cold beverages.
Protection of the people that are near to the patient should be higher. None of the members of the household should sleep in the same room with the patient, and should not to stay in it, or if you must, then it should be kept to a minimum.
If someone has to lay in that room, the patient’s bed should be enclosed mobile canvas wall and thus at least partially reduce the scattering of germs throughout the room. During the day, a cover should be removed.
No object that serves the patient should not use household.
In particular, care should be taken to children. Small children can not enter the room of patients with tuberculosis.
In certain cases apply chemoprophylaxis.
From herbs St. John’s wort is useful and should be used daily.
The recipe for the treatment of tuberculosis
From a mixture of 250 g of sugar, lemon juice, and olive oil took before meals per 2 tablespoons.
- The mixture of the 6 tablespoons of grated horseradish and black radish pour a liter of boiling wine, leave covered for 2 hours, strain, sweeten with honey and drink every hour after 3 tablespoons. In addition, the recommended daily chewing of 100 g of honey, and wax out, not swallow.
Grated horseradish mixed with water and every morning of this mixture to take the spoon.
After pneumonia: a tablespoon of flowers St. John’s wort briefly boiled in a liter of water and drink 2-3 cups a day, before meals.