Breast Cancer – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Stages, Prevention and Treatments

breast cancer is diagnosed and detected on time, then is completely curable.


Резултат слика за Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor which affects females. Rarely occurs before the age of 20, but the most common are from 70 years.

Prevention of breast cancer

Mass morbidity of these malignancies contributes to poor knowledge of patients, lack of health education, and irregular checks. In terms of risk factors, most attention should be paid to genetic predispositions, as greater dangers exposed women in the family have recorded breast cancer. The best prevention for breast cancer is to be well informed.

Breast cancer symptoms

A very common symptom is the occurrence of watery, purulent or bloody secretion from the nipple. It takes six years to change a diameter of one centimeter in breast tissue developed into cancer, which means that regular control of the life-saving.

Breast cancer stages

Based on the microscopic structure of breast cancer can be classified into two groups. The first is called Breast Cancer “in situ” means that the abnormal cell growth is retained inside the milk ducts. This breast cancer is not affecting the surrounding tissue, nor has metastasized to other organs, but over time can turn into invasive cancer that spreads beyond the breast and through the blood and lymph can affect other organs.

Breast cancer types 

Oncologists distinguish three clinical forms of breast cancer:

Early cancer – the tumor is confined to the breast and axillary lymph nodes and without a problem can be removed by surgery.
Locally advanced breast cancer – no metastases in other organs, but the operation is hardly feasible or impossible because of the size of the tumor, and because of that, it has affected a large area of the chest wall.
Metastatic breast cancer involves the spread of tumor tissue (metastasis) to other parts of the body.

In the diagnosis of breast cancer, the first method is certainly breast palpation.


Mammography breast is a very reliable diagnostic procedure (detects breast cancer in 85% sluičajeva) and healthy women from the 45th to 70th year of age should undergo such a review every two years. Once mammography is not possible to determine what kind of change does, however, includes ultrasound, especially in younger women because their breast glandular tissue abound that is not suitable for mammography examinations. It should be noted that the benefits of mammography radiation much greater than the potential risk of radiation appliances. Considerably less frequently, in the diagnosis of breast cancer using the scanner, magnetic resonance imaging or scintigraphy. Confirmation of the diagnosis of breast cancer can give only histopathological examination of tissue view.

Breast cancer – treatments

Surgical can remove only the diseased part (sparing surgery) or if the disease progressed – complete breast – mastectomy breast. After intervention and analysis of the removed tumor tissue, professional consulting team evaluates the importance of individual prognostic factors and determines radiation therapy and medications.

If  is not possible to determine whether in the body there are arrears of some tumor cells, is recommended the so-called adjuvant therapy with cytostatics or hormones. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy and breast conserving surgery has a very great impact on the psychological state of the patient’s recovery. Performed during surgery (mastectomy or breast conserving surgery) or subsequently implants or muscle-cutaneous flap.

Breast cancer – prognosis

It is very difficult to predict with certainty whether there will be a so-called relapse-recurrence of tumor tissue, or metastasis, which can occur after several months or even years.

Breast Self-Examination

For breast cancer an essential part of prevention is certainly a breast self-examination, that women should be subjected to one month after cessation of menstruation, but if there is no cycle, at regular intervals, which itself determines.


Immunotherapy or biological therapy regenerates, stimulates or enhances the natural anti-tumor function of the immune system. One of the better-known forms of this method of treatment of malignant diseases is the application of cytokines, proteins that block the growth of tumor cells and thereby stimulate the activity of immune cells. Other forms of immunotherapy are the use of so-called monoclonal antibodies that bind to specific antigens of the tumor cells and thus stop the growth of tumors.

Author: K.S


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