Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) – Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) syndrome is a serious psychological problem that usually occurs as a result of a traumatic experience and causes fear and a total sense of powerlessness in the patient.

Резултат слика за Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with adequate access and above all understanding of this condition can be successful, mitigate and eventually completely eliminated. In what way can alleviate the problems and how to overcome the traumatic experiences in the right way, find out below .


Wars natural disasters, fires, and major social changes can cause hard tolerable stress and major trauma, which often cause serious psychological problems and disorders. These conditions are all more common in the modern world and even threaten our society.

The broadest definition of the traumatic experience, describing it as emotionally insurmountable disaster, potentially life-threatening, that can not be overcome by standard mechanisms. Most people with this problem later be difficult to return to the previous, normal state, and the effects and symptoms of PTSD can take several months, even years, and completely change the life of an individual. In such cases, it can be concluded that comes PTSD syndrome.

Posttraumatic stress disorder classified in the group of anxiety states and is formed upon exposure to life-threatening situations, it is defined as a delayed or sustained response to a stressful event (called a stressor), which can be experienced in isolation or in groups. Traumatic situations that can trigger PTSD include violent attacks disease at the individual, natural disasters or disasters caused by human factor and one of the most common causes of this disorder is the participation in the war.

From post-traumatic stress disorder can suffer and victims of physical or sexual abuse such as rape and other crimes, survivors of the terrorist attack, torture, kidnapping or participated in the rescue of victims of accidents such as floods, fires or traffic accidents. Often, PTSD syndrome challenges the testimony of starvation or killing another person, or learning that a close friend or family member in danger.


Usually, the symptoms of PTSD occur in the first three months of a traumatic event, but in rare cases manifest themselves only after several years. They are divided into three categories: re-experiencing the trauma, avoidance and increased arousal.

The most striking feature of which carries PTSD syndrome is a constant reliving of the trauma experienced through memories announcement or disturbing dreams, as well as the so-called flashbacks. Avoidance is manifested by refusing persons to face the facts related to the trauma – avoiding thoughts, feelings, and conversations on this subject, as well as places or people that remind her of what had happened. Patients becoming uninterested in everyday activities, emotionally empty and alienated from the once close people.

The symptoms of hyperarousal include insomnia, excessive tension, guilt, excessive consumption of alcohol and other psychoactive substances, problems with concentration and memory, hallucinations, agitation and seizures of anger and even aggression. Post-traumatic stress disorder can dramatically change a person, have a negative impact on her career or social life, and even ordinary, everyday activities.

Also, people diagnosed with the disease more susceptible to the other psihičkiim disorders, such as anxiety and depression, eating disorders, substance abuse, and propensity to suicide. PTSD syndrome can be caused by organic diseases, primarily cardiovascular and autoimmune as well as diseases of the musculoskeletal system.


Symptoms of PTSD are accompanied by overall poor mental and physical condition, due to which the quality of life of the patient considerably disrupted. Often occur and physical manifestations such as a severe headache, gastrointestinal disorders, problems with the immune system (much more common low immunity in patients), dizziness or chest pain, due to which PTSD syndrome often causes anxiety disorder.

Post-traumatic stress disorder does not have a predictable stream of symptoms in mild cases may disappear in a few months, but, in this case, it is the acute condition. However, in most cases that PTSD disease assumes a chronic form, when symptoms last much longer, even years. Then ill and need special medical attention.

When a person finds himself in a situation where feeling intense fear, helplessness, and horror, and while they threatened her life and physical integrity, saying that he suffered a traumatic event. In addition, when someone attends threatening the life and physical integrity of others, also can talk about the traumatic situation. In short, these are events that can have lasting negative effects on survivors. Traumatic situations can be physical, sexual and psychological abuse and neglect, but also a result of natural disasters – earthquakes, floods, fires, etc.

However, the experience of trauma is an individual thing. What a traumatic experience for one person does not have to be for another. People differ in temperament, beliefs, value systems and life experiences, and especially after the previous traumatic experiences.


To treat PTSD syndrome and that could include talking about the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, it is necessary to determine what kind of traumatic event works. Recovery includes several stages. According to Judith Herman (Judith Lewis Herman), primarily involves the establishment of a sense of security and reconstruction stories of trauma and re-establish the connection between the survivor and his community. At the very beginning, we have focused on stabilization, mitigation and encouraging people to get involved in treatment.

It is important that the patient is informed about what PTSD syndrome and what are its symptoms, as is examining the state can reduce further suffering. It is very useful to help the individual to develop constructive strategies to overcome the individual symptoms (anxiety, anger, depression, alcohol abuse, sleep problems and human relations). An integral part of the process is and deal with difficult and painful traumatic memories.

At this stage of treatment apply specific procedures, among which stands out as a particularly effective method of EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing). In addition, it is important to help a person to find meaningful ways of assessing the meaning of experienced, which will reduce the risk of recurrence of symptoms.

It should be noted that the relationship that the therapist establishes the patient is crucial for successful treatment. Of particular importance are the acceptance, respect, patience, care and flexibility to the person who is diagnosed with PTSD syndrome, to help restore dignity and adopted trauma as part of the life experience.

Author: K.S

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