AIDS/HIV – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatments

AIDS/HIV is a contagious and incurable disease that can not be prevented by a vaccine or cure for removing viruses. The doctors can only slow the damage to the immune system.

Резултат слика за aids

INTRODUCTION

AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) and HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) are shortcuts that come from the English language, while AIDS acronym that comes from the French language.
HIV is the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. People with HIV infection often called HIV positive, because blood tests with them revealed the presence of HIV virus type I or type II.

The presence of the HIV virus does not necessarily mean the development of AIDS since there are cases that have no symptoms or only enlargement of lymph nodes.
The characteristic of the virus attacks the immune system, particularly the lymphocytes, which are responsible for defense against infections and tumors.
AIDS

AIDS is a contagious and incurable disease that can not be prevented by a vaccine or cure removing viruses. Can only slow the damage to the immune system.
The disease is transmitted through blood, sexual contact or from mother to child.
Transmission of the disease through blood is possible in several ways. One way is when blood transfusion patient can receive infected blood, which is nowadays a very rare case because all the blood before transfusion tested for HIV.

The greatest possibility of the infection among intravenous drug users, because very often use common pins.
The virus can be transmitted through sexual contact and during homosexual or heterosexual intercourse (anal and vaginal). Infection through sexual contact usually happens in people who frequently change sexual partners and have sexual relations with addicts. It has been shown that the use of condoms to 10 times reduces the possibility of infection in sexual intercourse.

All children born of infected mothers have antibodies against HIV. This does not mean that all children are born infected. Infection in the newborn takes about 30% of cases. By taking the drug Zidovudine during pregnancy can significantly reduce the possibility skate newborn. There have been rare cases of women who become infected after birth, and through breastfeeding infected and your child.

AIDS virus is not transmitted through sweat, saliva, tears or urine. Also, the infected can not use common towels, bedding or toilet with an infected person.

SYMPTOMS

In many cases, people infected with HIV can be no interference over a long period of time, and we say that a person is asymptomatic seropositive. A person leading a normal life and do not show any symptoms that could lead to the conclusion of the disease. In these cases, only laboratory tests can detect the presence of infection.

Primary infection often is asymptomatic or manifest non-specific image that occurs from 1 to 12 weeks of infection. In some cases, may appear fever, sweating, nausea, pain in the muscles and bones, anorexia, nausea, diarrhea, sore throat and lymphadenopathy.

Some patients have symptoms such as a headache, photophobia, and mental confusion. It is possible rash, localized on the trunk. The phenomena disappear spontaneously during two to three weeks. The review determined enlargement of lymph nodes, skin exanthema and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory tests indicate a decrease in the number of lymphocytes in the blood and accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

The systemic lymphadenopathy is increased the volume of lymph nodes, which lasts at least three months, and is not caused by any other illness. The most commonly takes the underarms and neck and frequent manifestations of HIV.
Symptomatic is the phase in which it appears candidiasis of the oral cavity and it is a very common manifestation of HIV infection.

The most frequently occurring four forms, and these are pseudomembranous, hyperplastic, erythematous, angular cheilitis.

The most common are pseudomembranous form, with the presence of an off-white or yellowish plaques on normal or reddish mucous membranes. The plaques are easily removed, and below them see red mucous membranes. This form usually affects palate, tonsils, back of the tongue and oral mucosa.

Hyperplastic form occurs as a white plaque, which can not be removed but is localized on the edges of the tongue, palate, and buccal mucosa.

The erythematous form is manifested by redness or slick on the palate.

In younger patients, angular cheilitis can be one of the first signs of HIV infection. Appears as painful cracks in the corner of his mouth, often with fine white plaques.

During the symptomatic phase, patients often complain of extreme tiredness, night sweats, fever, diarrhea and weight loss. There is a great possibility of getting tuberculosis, herpes zoster, or anemia.

TREATMENT

Treatment of patients can be divided into the treatment of HIV infection and treatment of antiviral drugs for opportunistic infections and neoplasia.
The goal of treatment with antiviral medicines consists of inhibition of viral reproduction and prevention of infection of healthy cells.

AZT (Zidovudine) is a drug of choice in the treatment of advanced stages of HIV infection. AZT can prolong the patient’s life by a few months to two years and more. AZT reduces the number of opportunistic infections.
AZT is not the only drug in the treatment of AIDS. The drugs called protease inhibitors (Indinavir) have proved to be very effective.
A form of therapy that uses 3 drug HART ( Highly Active Retroviral Therapy), helps people with AIDS prolonging life. Those infected with HIV are living longer and because doctors know how to properly use antibiotics to combat secondary infections before they ever develop.

Treatment of HIV infection and AIDS is not easy. Daily medication regime can be complicated and require a lot of time, but it is important to note that these drugs must be administered exactly as it is prescribed by a doctor.
In rare cases, drugs do not work. This occurs as a result of the development of resistance of HIV-1, which can mutate into forms that do not always work.
PREVENTION

There is no vaccine against HIV and the only way to prevent the disease is to avoid risky behaviors. In each sex, always use a condom and, of course, do not use intravenous drugs, and especially do not use needles of other addicts.


Author: K.S

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